State of the art

In general, data and information visualisation techniques are complementary to statistical analysis; as such they are applied for refining and exploring data and information or for creating results presentations. Usual practice of representing and analysing engineering data and information found in the industry sums to a form of table based output summaries as spreadsheets, which suffices simple traceability needs and is suitable for personal use providing limited support for information evolution dynamics and dependency analysis. A visualization technique suitable for utilisation of organisational information has to offer some kind of narrative explanatory approach by which is possible to refine and navigate the information content and context by intent to uncover the meaning behind the recorded data and information. By making information structures organized, contemporary visualisation approaches could provide means to interactively navigate and uncover the information stakeholders are looking for and to understand the structure and behavior of complex hierarchical social networks of R&D organisations through their respective information dynamics.

Organic information visualisation proposed by Benjamin Fry (www.benfry.com)is an approach to information visualisation design which employs a computer based animation and simulation to conduct qualitative analysis of complex and dynamic information structures. Organic systems are by definition open and information processing systems all of which exhibit responsiveness to stimuli, they self-organize to maintain order whilst resource competing. Organic visualisation assumes a metaphor towards living systems thus establishing a visualisation technique by mimicking of organic properties and behavior. The information processed to appear as the structures which are observed in autopoietic systems with their maintenance governed by the information generation, consummation, communication and the interaction within complex environment of an ecosystem lets the abstract entities employed for the information visualisation to develop, evolve, interact towards emergent behaviour, reproduce and eventually to die out, altogether creating a visual support system for complexity understanding and interpretation. Complementary to the different visualisation methods, dynamic models of information flow and diffusion in socio-technical systems based on the probabilistic approach, large-scale networks, graph theory and spectrum analysis point of view are developed. Based on them mayor challenges in management of R&D organisations like resilience, reliability, risk managementand innovation can be effectively mitigated.